23 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来沪江网校学习

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咖啡党和不喝咖啡的人,完全就是两个世界的人。同理,去星巴克喝几十块1杯咖啡的人,和在家喝几块钱速溶、挂耳的人,也是两个世界的人。

速溶、挂耳党对星巴克党最大的质疑,莫过于“几十块1杯咖啡真的值吗?”至于英大我嘛,作为一个典型的工薪阶层,去评判一个东西“值不值”,当然应该把它和工作结合起来看,也就是:你愿意为这个东西工作多久?

如果说,我愿意为这杯咖啡工作1小时,而这杯咖啡35块钱,我一周工作7天,平均每天工作8小时(不加班的话)那么,我一天的收入应该是280元,月薪到手应该是6160元,折合成税前月薪大概7500元。而我并不想为1杯咖啡工作1小时,所以,如果我的月薪是7500元,我会觉得买星巴克不值得。

为了1杯咖啡,我只愿意工作10分钟,所以为了喝一杯35块钱的星巴克,我的税前月薪起码得有4万。Oops~ 星巴克再见~

好,那么问题来了,不管是从绝对金额算,还是从工作时间算,为什么有的人愿意接受星巴克的定价,还有的人不愿意接受星巴克的定价?这牵扯到这样一个概念:锚定效应(anchoring effect)

我们第一次购买一样东西的价格,通常会变成这种东西在我们心目中的锚点价格,我们以后购买同类东西的时候都会以它作为参考。不过,星巴克的现象可能比这更麻烦一点,因为有些本来喝几块钱咖啡的人,后来也入坑了。这牵扯到了另一个效应:自我羊群效应(self herd effect)

一开始,这个人可能是为了想体验星巴克主打的“氛围”和“文化”而去尝试了一次,这可能只是一次冲动消费。但是,人们都会不断在心里把自己做过的事情合理化,换句话说就是要说服自己“我这么做是对的”;于是,这个人以后再去星巴克的可能性就比以前要高了,而如果他继续去的话,就会在这个重复的过程中越来越觉得这个决策是合理的;这就是自我羊群效应。这么久而久之,他对咖啡这个东西的锚点价格就变了。

OK,来讲一讲今天的词 anchor。当它作名词的时候,它指的是船的锚;同时也能指新闻节目的主播。

而作动词的时候,它表示“抛锚”、“锚定”;同时也能指“主持节目”。

23 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来沪江网校学习

新人福利!→→热门好课,0元任性学

爱喝咖啡的人可能都发现了,咖啡现在越来越贵,

不管是雀巢的速溶咖啡,还是星巴克的现磨咖啡,价格都在越来越高。

这里面当然有正常的物价上涨,

但同时,其实还有一个很多人不知道的原因,那就是气候变化(climate change)

咖啡树对生长环境是有要求的,只有在合适的温度、湿度、光照条件下面才能健康成长,从而结出优质的果实。

(中美洲的咖啡农正在收获咖啡果实)

就拿国内最常见的阿拉比咖啡(Coffea Arabica)来说,它的适宜温度是18~21℃,如果温度过高,咖啡豆就会过早成熟,里面的风味物质就会积累不足;而如果这种咖啡树持续暴露在30℃的环境中,植株本身还会受到明显的伤害。

(咖啡果实)

而随着全球变暖,适合咖啡树生长的区域正在变得越来越少,于是咖啡开始减产,价格开始变高,品质也不如以前了。

联合国在2014年的时候做过一个估算,按照现在的气候变化速度来看,到2050年,光是中美洲的咖啡产地就会缩小38%~89%。

所以,照这个情况,以后的咖啡会越来越贵,而且还可能没有以前好喝。

有的人提议说:只要搬去适合的地区种咖啡不就好了吗?

这个说法听起来好像问题不大,不过它实际上是“可能而不可行”(possible but not probable)

因为,现在世界上超过70%的咖啡都是小农户种植的,他们不可能做到大规模迁移。

(有的农户是用牛车运输咖啡豆的)

另外,和咖啡遭受同样命运的还有巧克力。

所以,如果你是个咖啡或者巧克力的爱好者,或许就应该多为环保出些力了。

OK,来讲讲今天的词 probable

在课本中,它和 possible 两个都被翻译为“可能的”,

于是,很多人以为它们是同一个意思。

其实它们的意思完全不一样。

possible 表示的是“在理论上完全可能发生的”,

比如:你在理论上完全可能和自己的偶像结婚,因为你们都活在地球上,而且属于同一个物种。

而 probable 的意思是“有概率发生的”,如果是概率极小的事,那就 not probable 了。

比如:对于绝大多数人来讲,和偶像结婚就是 not probable 的。

23 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来沪江网校学习

新人福利!→→热门好课,0元任性学

Starbucks has been ordered to pay a Florida woman $100,000 after she suffered first- and second-degree burns from their coffee.
佛罗里达州一名女士被星巴克咖啡烫到,系一度、二度烫伤,陪审团要求星巴克支付受害人10万美元作为补偿。
Joanne Mogavero, 43, endured permanent scarring after the lid on a venti-sized Pike Place coffee popped off at a Jacksonville drive-thru window in 2014. The slip led to the scalding, 190-degree beverage to pour on her lap, her attorneys said in a statement.
43岁的乔安娜·莫加韦罗2014年在杰克逊维尔市一家星巴克得来速窗口接过一杯超大杯派克市场咖啡时,杯盖脱落,导致87.8摄氏度高温的咖啡倒在她腿上,留下了永久疤痕,原告律师在一份声明中说。
A Duval County jury on Thursday awarded the mother of three $85,000 for pain and suffering, physical impairment, disfigurement, inconvenience and loss of capacity for enjoyment of life. It also ordered that she receive $15,000 for medical bills.
周四,杜瓦尔县的陪审团判定这位三个孩子的母亲获赔8.5万美元,用于补偿她身心痛苦、外形受损、生活不便以及享受生活能力受损,同时要求星巴克支付1.5万美元的医疗费用。
Mogavero’s lawyers pressed that the coffee giant should warn its customers that their lids have a tendency to pop off.
原告律师强调,星巴克应该提醒他们的顾客咖啡杯盖有可能脱落。
During trial, a Starbucks representative reportedly testified that the company receives 80 complaints a month about lids coming off and leaking like this. Despite this amount, they said it “would not be relevant” to warn customers of this risk, Mogavero’s lawyers said.
庭审期间,星巴克一名代表作证,公司每个月会接到大约80起关于杯盖脱落倒出饮料的投诉。原告律师表示,尽管投诉数目惊人,被告方仍认为提醒顾客这类危险“与本案无关”。
“My client didn’t want sympathy from the jury — she wanted justice — and the jury gave it to her with its verdict,” said her lawyer, Steve Earle, in a statement.
原告律师史蒂夫·厄尔在一份声明中说:“我的客户不需要陪审团的同情,她要的是公道,陪审团的判决还了她一个公道。”
A spokesperson for Starbucks told Fortune that the company is considering an appeal and is standing by the employees involved in this case.
一名星巴克发言人告诉《财富》杂志,公司支持涉案员工,正在考虑上诉。
(本文翻译:Frank)

声明:本双语文章的中文翻译系沪江英语原创内容,转载请注明出处。中文翻译仅代表译者个人观点,仅供参考。如有不妥之处,欢迎指正。

23 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来沪江网校学习

新人福利!→→热门好课,0元任性学

If you love coffee, coke or any kind of caffeinated beverage, then you’re next trip should be to Japan. Coca-Cola has just released Coca-Cola Coffee Plus, a drink with 50 percent more caffeine and 50 percent fewer calories.
如果你热爱咖啡、可乐或任何含咖啡因的饮料,接下来可以去一趟日本~可口可乐公司刚推出了一款升级版可乐咖啡,含超过50%的咖啡因和不足50%的少量卡路里。
The intriguing drink, which has been released as a vending machine exclusive, arrives in a 190ml can and has 34mg of caffeine. The coffee comes in the form of extract powder.
这款饮品目前只在自动贩卖机上售卖,容量190毫升,内含34毫克咖啡因,非常吸引人,主要用浓缩粉末泡制而成。
According to Shin-Shouhin, it has an odd aroma, as it doesn’t smell like coffee or the iconic soda. It does, however, taste like Coke, until it goes down and you’re left with a coffee aftertaste. “To be frank, it’s not a very delicious aroma,” notes the article, before going on to describe it as “curious” and “odd.”
日本某网站Shin-Shouhin上说它味道很奇怪,闻起来既不像咖啡也不像一般的苏打水,喝起来是可乐的味道。但是必须得等它沉淀一会儿,咖啡的味道才会出来。“坦白讲,不是很好闻。”“很奇怪的味道。”
Coca-Cola Coffee Plus isn’t the first coffee crossover from the brand. It previously released Coca-Cola BlāK in Europe and the United States.
升级版可乐咖啡不是可口可乐推出的第一款跨界饮品了,此前该公司还在欧洲和美国推出过Coca-Cola BlāK。
Look out for the drink at vending machines if you’re in Japan, and then get acquainted with Coca-Cola Plus.
要是在日本的话可以找找看自动贩卖机上的这款饮料,尝尝它是什么味道~

16 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Every so often, we all realize that we’ve been using a product completely wrong for years and are mind-blown when we figure out its intended use.
我们时常会发现某个东西用错很多年,弄清真正用法时就豁然开朗了。
This, friends, is another one of those times. The bottled Starbucks Frappuccinos you’ve been drinking straight out of the fridge aren’t called “bottled chilled lattes” or “cold mochas” for a reason.
朋友,我就要说一件这样的事。你一直从冰箱里拿出来就喝的星巴克的瓶装星冰乐没有取名叫“瓶装冰拿铁”或者“冰摩卡”是有原因的。
They actually turn into the iced blended Starbucks drinks you’ve come to know and love…if you freeze them.
如果你把它们冻上,它们其实可以变成你所熟悉并喜爱的星巴克混合冰镇饮料。
TikToker @naatalie_lee put this revelation to the test. She heard on TikTok, of course, that you’re actually supposed to put Starbucks’ bottled Frappuccinos in the freezer for them to turn into, you know, a Frappuccino.
抖音用户@naatalie_lee做了这个试验。当然她是在抖音上听说其实应该把星巴克的瓶装星冰乐放冰箱里,才能变成真正的“星冰乐”。
She tried it with a bottle of the vanilla-flavored Frappuccino by putting it in the freezer for a few hours. When she pulled it out, it still looked like liquid. Once she shook it, though, it turned into a blended iced drink.
她用一瓶香草味星冰乐试了一下。把它放冰箱里几小时,拿出来以后看起来仍然像是液体,但是一晃就变成了混合的冰镇饮料。

16 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来到环球冷知识~

世界那么有趣,当然要看看

这一期我们来说旧金山

这个硅谷旁边的著名大都市

有哪些奇特的冷知识呢

San Francisco

旧金山

1 为什么叫旧金山?

可能有很多人还不明白 San Francisco 为什么翻译成“旧金山”,从字面上看它显然叫“圣弗兰西斯科”,或者音译成我们国内常说的“三番市”。

我们叫它“旧金山”,是因为它曾是美国加州淘金热的中心,1848年人们在这里发现了大量的黄金,全世界各地迅速蜂拥来了大量的淘金客,旧金山在短短几年时间里从一个小定居点变成了大城市。(顺带一提,新金山是澳大利亚的墨尔本)

图片来源:图虫创意

当时也有大量的中国人来到的旧金山参与淘金热,最主要的是广东人,现在旧金山人口里有超过20%都是华人,通用语言是粤语。

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a gold rush that began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found in California. The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, and the sudden population increase allowed California to go rapidly to statehood. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California.
加利福尼亚淘金热(1848-1855)始于1848年1月24日,当时人们在那里发现了黄金。发现黄金的消息使约30万人从美国其他地区和国外来到加利福尼亚。黄金突然流入货币市场,增加了货币供给,重振了美国经济,而人口的骤然增长使加利福尼亚得以迅速发展成为一个州。旧金山在1846年还是一个只有200人的小定居点,到1852年已经发展成为一个拥有36,000人的新兴城市。加利福尼亚各地修起了公路,建起了教堂、学校和其他城镇。

2 中餐馆的幸运饼干

爱看美剧的人可能都发现了,里面的美国人特别爱吃中餐外卖,美国的“中餐馆”也是遍地开花,虽然里面卖的大部分东西都是中国没有的假中餐。

而其中最臭名昭著的应该就是幸运饼干 fortune cookie

一个U型枕一样的空心饼干,里面会有一张小纸条,通常是吉祥话或者什么吉凶预测。

这玩意儿已经成了美国中餐馆的标配,搞得很多美国年轻人都以为它是中国特色,说这是“中式签饼” Chinese fortune cookie

但我们显然没有在中国见到过这个东西,更别说它是特色了。事实上它也确实和中国没关系,它是旧金山的一个日本厨师发明的,原型也是日本的签饼:

日式签饼。图片来源:melissanomeritto.blogspot.com

只是它后来不知道为什么在中餐馆开花了,而不是日餐馆。

The Chinese fortune cookie was invented by a Japanese resident of San Francisco. As far back as the 19th century, a cookie very similar in appearance to the modern fortune cookie was made in Kyoto, Japan; and there is a Japanese temple tradition of random fortunes, called omikuji. The Japanese version of the cookie differs in several ways: they are a little bit larger; are made of darker dough; and their batter contains sesame and miso rather than vanilla and butter. They contain a fortune; however, the small slip of paper was wedged into the bend of the cookie rather than placed inside the hollow portion. This kind of cookie is called tsujiura senbei (辻占煎餅) and is still sold in some regions of Japan, especially in Kanazawa, Ishikawa. It is also sold in the neighborhood of Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine in Kyoto.
中式签饼是由一位居住在旧金山的日本人发明的。早在19世纪,日本京都就有一种与现代签饼非常相似的饼干;而且在日本的寺庙里有抽签卜运的传统,这种传统又被称为“omikuji”(御神签)。日式签饼有一些不同点:日式签饼要大一些,而且是用深色的面团做成的,另外,面糊里会加入芝麻和日本豆腐,而不是香草和黄油。签饼里有一张签纸,不过这张小纸条被塞进了饼干弯曲的部分,而不是空心的部分。这种饼干被称为“辻占煎餅”,目前在日本部分地区仍有出售,特别是在石川县金泽市。另外,在京都伏见稻荷神社附近也有出售。

16 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Famous authors and artists are commonly photographed alongside a trusty mug of coffee, but that cup of joe is more likely to help the Great American Manager. Caffeine, it turns out, does not improve creativity, but it significantly enhances problem-solving, according to a new study.
著名作家和艺术家拍照时旁边经常会有一杯咖啡,但这杯咖啡更有可能会给这位美国好经理带来帮助。一项新的研究表明,咖啡因并不能提高创造力,但能显著提高解决问题的能力。
This is news, given how strongly we associate coffee with creative occupations and lifestyles. The study, published today in Consciousness and Cognition, followed 80 participants after they consumed either a placebo or 200 mg of caffeine—the equivalent of 12 ounces of coffee—and then tracked their problem-solving, creative idea generation, working memory, and mood.
考虑到我们平时以为咖啡和创造性职业以及生活方式有很大联系,所以这是个新发现。这项研究现在发表在《Consciousness and Cognition》上,在80名参与者分别喝了无效对照剂和200 mg咖啡因(相当于12盎司咖啡)之后,跟踪观察他们解决问题的能力、创意的形成、工作记忆力和情绪。
While problem-solving abilities improved significantly, the caffeine had no effect on memory or creativity. Subjects also reported feeling “less sad.”
解决问题的能力显著提高,但咖啡因对记忆力或创造力毫无影响。研究对象也说“忧伤感并未减少”。
Previous studies have shown that caffeine improves alertness, focus, attention, and motor skills, but little research existed on creativity.
此前的研究表明咖啡因能提高机敏度、专注力、注意力和运动能力,但关于创造力的研究很少。
This means that caffeine helps some kinds of thinking, specifically convergent thinking, such as when you need correct answers, for instance, while taking a GRE or MCAT or recalibrating a budget.
这就意味着咖啡因有助于思考,特别是收敛性思维,比如你需要正确答案的时候,像参加GRE或MCAT考试,或者重新调整预算。
It will not help you in the divergent thinking of creativity, such as brainstorming a novel plot or imagining a new design. “It also doesn’t make it worse,” notes lead author Darya Zabelina, assistant psychology professor at the University of Arkansas, “so keep drinking your coffee. It won’t interfere.”
它在创造性发散思维方面对你没有帮助,比如脑洞大开地设计新情节或者思考新的设计。研究的第一作者Darya Zabelina是阿肯色大学的心理学助理教授,她指出:“咖啡也不会减弱这方面的能力,你可以继续喝,没有任何影响。”

16 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Starbucks has joined other food and beverage chains in taking action to prevent the spread of COVID-19, the novel coronavirus that has infected more than 100,000 people across the world.
星巴克也和其他食品饮品连锁店一样,开始采取措施避免新冠肺炎传播,全球已有超过10万人感染新型冠状病毒。
Starbucks baristas have paused filling personal cups or “for here” mugs in stores. However, the coffee chain will continue to honor its customary 10-cent discount to customers who bring their own mermaid tumbler cup or ask for an in-store option. So at least your wallet won’t take a hit in the process.
星巴克的咖啡师已停止用顾客自带的杯子或店里的“店用杯”接咖啡。但是这家咖啡连锁店像往常一样会给自带杯或想要用店用杯的顾客10美分的优惠,至少在疫情期你不会有经济损失了。
This represents just one of the many actions Starbucks has chosen to take in the name of public health. The coffee chain has also increased cleaning and sanitizing in all company-operated locations, as well as provided stores with information on how to proceed in the event they are impacted by the virus.
这只是星巴克在公共卫生方面采取的众多措施之一,这家咖啡连锁店还在所有直营咖啡店里加强清洁和消毒,并指导它们如何在受疫情影响期间继续营业。
On the corporate level, all business-related air travel has been suspended through the end of March. The company has also modified or postponed large meetings in both the U.S. and Canada.
在公司层面,三月末前取消所有商务航空旅行,该公司也修改或推迟了美国和加拿大的大型会议。

09 / 12 / 2020

星图注册官网《Q3249-1383 》Hello,欢迎来沪江网校学习

新人福利!→→热门好课,0元任性学

assault

[ə’sɔːlt]

v. 攻击;袭击

图片来源:视觉中国

McDonald’s customer gets 3 years in prison for throwing hot coffee in drive-thru worker’s face.
一名麦当劳顾客将热咖啡泼到得来速汽车餐厅员工的脸上,被判入狱3年。
An Ohio man was sentenced to three years in prison for throwing hot coffee at a McDonald’s drive-thru worker.
俄亥俄州的一名男子因把咖啡泼到了麦当劳得来速汽车餐厅员工的脸上,而被判三年监禁。
The incident occurred after the worker accidentally gave the man an extra cup of coffee with his order. The victim suffered first-degree burns after she insisted on seeing the customer’s receipt and he responded by throwing the coffee.
事故发生前,这名员工在为该男子递餐时不小心多给了他一杯咖啡。受害者坚持要看一下这名顾客的收据,而他却把咖啡泼到了她的脸上,使她遭到了一度灼伤。
Joseph Deluca, 54, admitted to assaulting the McDonald’s employee and was sentenced to three years in prison, Newsweek reported.
据《新闻周刊》报道,54岁的约瑟夫·德卢卡承认伤害了麦当劳员工,并被判三年监禁。
He pleaded guilty to felonious assault, along with aggravated assault for an unrelated incident (for which he received 18 months to be served concurrently).
他承认犯有人身攻击罪,并承认在另一起无关的事件中犯有严重的人身伤害罪(为此他被同时判处18个月的刑期)。
Authorities arrested Joseph Deluca in March for the Feb. 19 assault, which was caught on surveillance camera, Fox 8 reported.
据福克斯8台报道,2月19日约瑟夫·德卢卡袭击了别人,而他袭击别人的画面被监控拍到了,今年3月官方当局因此而逮捕了他。
According to the outlet, the female Mickey D’s staffer initially handed off the two cups in a cup holder to Deluca, before looking at the order screen and realizing the man had only ordered one cup of coffee.
据报道,这位麦当劳的女员工最初把装在杯架里的两杯咖啡递给了德卢卡,然后她查看了屏幕上的订单后,发现这名男子只点了一杯咖啡。
Asking to see his receipt to verify the transaction, the 54-year-old man reportedly “laughed” and insisted he had indeed ordered two cups of coffee. The woman – who was working alone in her drive-thru station – continued to insist that she needed to see the bill, prompting an angry Deluca to step outside of his vehicle and toss the coffees in her face, before driving away.
报道称,这位女员工要求查看这名54岁男子的收据以核实交易,然后他“笑了”,并坚称自己确实点了两杯咖啡。独自在得来速汽车餐厅工作的这名女子继续坚持表示,她需要查看账单,这使德卢卡愤怒地下车并把咖啡泼到了她的脸上,然后开车离开了。
The woman was rushed to the hospital to treat the first-degree burns she sustained on her neck and shoulder in the assault, Fox 8 reported.
据福克斯8台报道,这名女子被紧急送往医院治疗,在袭击中,她的脖子和肩膀都遭到了一度灼伤。\

09 / 12 / 2020

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component
[kəm’pəʊnənt]
n.零部件;组成部分

图片来源:视觉中国

Before Jarret Stopforth takes his first sip of coffee, he adds cream and sugar to mask the bitterness.
杰瑞特·斯托普福斯抿了第一口咖啡,他加了奶油和糖掩盖苦味。
But then, he thought, why settle for a regular cup of joe? So the food scientist decided to reengineer coffee, brewing it without the bitterness — or the bean.
但是之后,他想,为什么要满足于一杯普通的咖啡呢?于是这位食品科学家决定重组咖啡的结构,让发酵的咖啡没有苦味,也不使用咖啡豆。
“I started thinking, we have to be able to break coffee down to its core components and look at how to optimize it,” he explains.
“我开始想,我们必须将咖啡分解到只剩核心成分,然后思考如何充分利用这些成分。”他解释道。
Stopforth, who has worked with other food brands such as Chobani, Kettle & Fire and Soylent, partnered with entrepreneur Andy Kleitsch to launch Atomo.
斯托普福斯和其他食品品牌合作过,例如Chobani酸奶,Kettle&Fire汤品,以及Soylent代餐食品。他现在和企业家安迪·克莱奇合作,推出Atomo咖啡。
The pair turned a Seattle garage into a brewing lab and spent four months running green beans, roasted beans and brewed coffee through gas and liquid chromatography to separate and catalog more than 1,000 compounds in coffee to create a product that had the same color, aroma, flavor and mouthfeel as coffee.
这两人将西雅图的一个车库改造成发酵实验室,他们花了四个月的时间种青豆,烤制豆子,以及发酵咖啡。他们用气体和液体层析来分离1000多种咖啡中的成分,并对其进行分类,以便创造出一种与咖啡有着同样颜色、香气、口味和口感的产品。
“As we got deeper into the process, we learned more about the threats to the coffee world as a whole — threats to the environment from deforestation, global warming and [a devastating fungus called] rust, and we were even more committed to making a consistently great coffee that was also better for the environment,” Stopforth says.
“随着我们在过程中渐渐深入,我们了解到更多对整个咖啡世界的威胁–由砍伐森林、全球变暖、(叫做真菌的毁灭性的)生锈引起的环境威胁,然后我们更加坚定地想研发出一种一直都很棒的咖啡,这种咖啡对环境更好。”斯托普福斯说道。
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这块场地受reCAPTCHA和谷歌隐私政策和服务条款的保护。
The amount of land suitable for growing coffee is expected to shrink by an estimated 50% by 2050, according to a report by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture.
根据国际热带农业中心的一项报告,到2050年,预计适合种植咖啡豆的土地将缩减50%。